The Theory of Sampling and Sampling Practice, Third Edition is a step-by-step guide for anyone challenged by the many subtleties of sampling particulate materials. It is the only comprehensive document merging the famous works of P. Gy, I. Visman, and C.O. Ingamells intoa single theory in a logical way. As a result, it is the most advanced book on sampling that can be used by all sampling practitioners around the world.

Many complex features are covered by an entire chapter or several chapters, such Sampling of precious metals

• Sampling of trace constituents in high purity materials

• Sampling the environment

• Sampling for the moisture determination

• Sampling for particle size distribution

• The concept of equi-probabilistic sampling

• Correct design of sampling systems

• Sampling for metallurgical accounting and process control

• Taking advantage of existing chronological data

• Proportional sampling and bed blending

The third edition is a valuable guide for mineral processing engineers, metallurgists, geologists, miners, chemists, environmental scientists and academics. The book is set in a pragmatic way ideal for self-teaching critically important subjects that have been overlooked for too long by universities and colleges. The new edition covers recent knowledge, acquired during the past 20 years, accumulated by the many World Conferences on Sampling and Blending; as a result many notations are new. New chapters have been added to emphasize chronostatistics. Visman and Ingamells’ works, and the importance of sampling for trace constituents. 

Dr. Pitard is a well-known authority on sampling theory and practice. He has a Doctorate of Technologies from the University of Aalborg. He is the recipient of the famous Pierre Gy’s Gold Medal for excellence in promoting and his teaching of the Theory of Sampling all around the world.

AppliedGeochemicalAnalysis copy

This treatise on practical inorganic analytical chemistry includes not only classical, but also newly developed determinative techniques: XRF,ICP,AA, and others. The importance of Sampling Theory, especially as applied to the assay or analysis of exploration samples, is emphasized. Also discusses the use and misuse of reference samples or ``standards''. An important section on ``The Art of Chemical Analysis'' deals with manipulative ``bench-top'' problems often ignored in these days of automated instruments. A number of mineral analyses are presented, with a brief description of the procedures by which they were generated, and the difficulties encountered in actual practice.

SecondEditiionPierreGy copy

Pierre Gy's Sampling Theory and Sampling Practice, Second Edition is a concise, step-by-step guide for process variability management and methods. Updated and expanded, this new edition provides a comprehensive study of heterogeneity, covering the basic principles of sampling theory and its various applications. It presents many practical examples to allow readers to select appropriate sampling protocols and assess the validity of sampling protocols from others. The variability of dynamic process streams using variography is discussed to help bridge sampling theory with statistical process control. Many descriptions of good sampling devices, as well as descriptions of poor ones, are featured to educate readers on what to look for when purchasing sampling systems. 


This textbook encompasses a broad historical and methodological scope concerning the Theory of Sampling (TOS). Part 1 (Theory) opens with the critical distinction between sampling error and sampling uncertainty. It shows the many ways to estimate the variance of the Fundamental Sampling Error. It makes an unambiguous introduction to the concept and critical importance of sampling correctness and representative sampling. It presents suggestions for new notations regarding process sampling. It shows the necessity of being knowledgeable of Poisson processes that always have devastating consequences for the uninitiated sampling practitioner. It highlights the logic of Pierre Gy’s preventative paradigm, the unbiased sampling process. It outlines C.O. Ingamells’ historical work which is shown to constitute a vital complement to address issues involved in developing practical and preventive sampling protocols for all of science and industry. Part 2 (Practice) highlights selected areas in which TOS is essential e.g. the economic weakness of common blasthole sampling practices – and a strategy for the special case of sampling for trace constituents. The concept of Data Quality Objectives (DQO) is introduced. It offers a link between Geostatistics and the TOS by investigating in depth the subtle nature of the In Situ Nugget Effect. It shows the benefits of Chronostatistics to take advantage of existing process control data. It also shows that TOS must be an integrated part of Total Quality Management (TQM), of sampling due diligence auditing processes, indeed of any feasibility study, and of the creation of logical pathways to appropriate industrial sampling standards. The book is intended to be a facilitator for a large body of valuable academic work to develop into an acceptable product for the prospecting and mining industry in desperate need of TOS that can be used in mineral economics. Too often, industry practitioners regard TOS as a tool that has no link with the real world. Such a position is shown to be unjustified in the light of often crucial economic losses due to TOS disregard. The best way to improve this situation is to make the TOS a mandatory course at universities. It is of utmost importance to integrate the knowledge outlined in this thesis as part of the economic fundamentals used every day by scientists, geologists, geostatisticians, engineers, metallurgists, chemists, and many others. The Theory of Sampling constitutes the only framework upon which to base any sampling standard, whether for scientific, trading or legal purposes. Please contact Dr. Francis F. Pitard for more information.

This book shows beyond any possible doubt that our current system of    dimensions and units, metric or     not, is not an appropriate tool for advanced Nuclear Physics and Astronomy; it is unnecessarily complex with foundations that are more emotional than scientific. The system is acceptable for our day-to-day lives, when we cook for the family or build a car, totally unacceptable when we explore what the Universe is. A much better and simpler system is suggested. Let’s prove beyond any possible doubt that time, mass, permeability and permittivity do not need units of their own. In the suggested new system, all values for the “fundamental” physical constants are absolute, with the exception of the time-thickness constant. This alone eliminates unnecessary ambiguity and greatly simplifies our research for the ultimate truth about our place in this Universe. Then, and only then we can start our journey to the elusive heart of matter. It is indeed my view that the following work, if taken in a constructive way, can actually be a trampoline for today’s nuclear physics, quantum mechanics, string theory and astronomy in order to reach astonishing new possibilities, without, and I insist without, challenging the acquired knowledge from so many talented scientists accumulated over the past 200 years: without them this essay could absolutely not exist. The only thing it takes is a necessary shift in paradigms, from one paradigm for which we have been carefully wired for over 6000 years (i.e., looking at ourselves in a 3-dimensional universe) to another paradigm for which we are not prepared at all (i.e., looking at ourselves as an intimate part of the n-dimensional Universe); this may not seem new to many, but there are deep subtleties in the following work that makes it different and unique. As the reader will slowly progress through the text the argument should become self-explanatory, until we finally reach dramatic conclusions. In other words, nuclear physics, quantum mechanics, string theory and astronomy are a huge part of today’s fundamental knowledge in physics. Only a very deep reason, at the deepest roots of how we perceive the sub-quantic medium, could explain why we may have to take a deep breath, and completely rethink some of the assumptions that were used to wire our mind in the ways we think today. It is important to be humble about it and only look at the new possibilities. Along the way we will find out that we may have another serious problem with our existing systems of fundamental dimensions and units, metric or not: suggestions will be given as they were a natural by-product of our ways of thinking in this essay; this by itself should make the following work a cornerstone of a newway of thinking: a simpler and deeper way. Please contact Dr. Francis F. Pitard for more information.

HeirsFrancisPitard copy copy

For Polynesians, Tici, Teke, or Tiki is the sacred origin of all knowledge. In the Andes, Kon Tici means "Son of the Sun." What a remarkable coincidence! Kon Tici had the courage to live with a superb, unshakable ethic of peace. Along his breathtaking journey, he meets a young Polynesian woman, Hina of the Valley. Born with a noble heart, motivated by her tremendous respect for nature, self-reliant, and driven by constant love for her people, she matures quickly, and becomes a priestess second to none. Heirs of a Lost Race is the love story of Kon Tici and Hina of the Valley that should inspire, give a model of ethics, and provide hope and optimism. They are from different worlds, races, cultures and beliefs, leading to a breathtaking encounter. Within a microcosm of the South Pacific, forgotten values with universal reach are explored. Around the characters there is a constant powerful, spiritual and cosmic presence. The characters feel that presence, which adds a mysterious touch to their story and behavior.

RapaNuiFrancisPitard copy

I know some people will read this book and think of it as a fantasy that took place more than 1600 years ago. So be it! As a good friend of ours, Dr. Janet J. Seahorn put it so well after reading my first novel: “Sometimes you pick up a book thinking it will just be an average reading experience; one that gives you something to do on a normal day where you have a few hours to sit and relax. Heirs of a Lost Race is not such a book. It is much more and demands that the reader pay attention to the greater message. Pitard requires the reader to think about the characters, what is happening and why, and contrasts that information with his/her world. It takes several chapters before the pieces begin to fit into the story and is worth the wait.” I kept the same spirit for Rapa Nui Settlers. This book pays homage to the real Rapanuis, the original Rapanuis, a peaceful group of talented, intelligent, and caring people. Contemporaneous theories characterizing the Rapanuis as a self-destructive society that created the environmental disaster, starvation, cannibalism, and warfare resulting in its downfall is unadulterated slander! In today’s society, we often scrape the bottom of the barrel to rationalize what we do today around the world. Such is the case for those who cast aspersions on the Rapanuis. Mongers of inaccurate, arrogant, and contrived pseudo-histories have done a criminal disservice to a proud people and to the rest of us who honor them for their magnificent achievements. The following story is a product of the author’s imagination. However, I made a strong effort to emphasize the few things they may have done right in the early days, and perhaps we could learn something ourselves on how to cure that which makes us who we really are today.


These were the times and places where humans descended to a level lower than animals. Ravensbrck was one of those times and places where human dignity became an unimaginable luxury. This is a true story of prisoner 44667 and the routine horror that systematically denigrated and stripped 132,000 women of their humanity. It is the story of true love. The details are historically accurate. None of the characters are fictional. Aline Virmoux and her husband were active members of the French Resistance. After three years of successful activities, they were caught in 1944 by the Gestapo. He was deported to Dachau. She was deported to the womens concentration camp of Ravensbrck. Aline last few days in Nazi Germany were nothing short of a breathtaking and unforgettable case of survival and bravery.

                                                                                  ©2015 Francis Pitard Sampling Consultants, LLC. t+1.303.451.7893